This paper expands upon the traditional U-inverted environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for BRICS countries, incorporating the dimension of education with regard to agricultural activities, energy use, trade openness, and mobile use as key driving forces of carbon emissions. The empirical results validate the EKC between carbon emissions and economic growth, further establishing the detrimental impact of agriculture on the environment.
It is shown that agriculture significantly impacts the environment negatively in BRICS countries. However, this study further investigates the mitigating potential of education in this context. The analysis emphasizes the consequential role of education in promoting sustainable agricultural practices, reducing carbon emissions, and ultimately helping the planet. It suggests that enhanced educational efforts could be a pathway towards the adoption of cleaner energy processes, fostering a culture of sustainable practices, and enabling high-tech, clean foreign investment. In this way, the study integrates education as a critical component in mitigating the environmental consequences of agricultural activities in the BRICS countries.
Daniel Balsalobre- Lorente (Daniel.Balsalobre@uclm.es) is PhD in Economics and Associate Professor (Tenure) in the Department of Applied Economics I, at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. At the academic and research level, Daniel Balsalobre is an expert in public finance, energy economics, economic growth and environment, tourism, and innovation and globalization. In recent years I have published more than 100 studies in journals and book chapters of reputed prestige and international scientific impact; including Energy Economics, Energy Policy, Resources Policy, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Journal of Cleaner Production, Sustainability, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Energies, and Journal of Public Affairs, among others. Prof Balsalobre currently serves as editor-in-chief of Evaluation Review (SAGE) and associate editor at Heliyon (Elsevier), Environment, Development and Sustainability (Springer). I am also a guest editor for Renewable Energy (Elsevier), Utilities Policy (Elsevier), Energy Sources Part B (Taylor), Sustainability (MDPI), Energies (MDPI), among others; also being an expert reviewer of more than 200 articles for highly indexed journals and handbooks. As a result of his academic career, he currently accumulates more than 5500 citations in google scholar and h-index 37 entered the International Ranking elaborated by Stanford University for those top 2% Researchers.